Option trading is typically associated with three different investor types.
There are hedging strategies employed by large institutional investors, income-producing strategies for cash flow investors, and more aggressive trading strategies favored by speculators. But where the does the long term investor fit in?
Are there any option trading strategies that the conservative investor can employ to enhance his or her long term returns? In fact, there are. Leveraged Investing There are actually a number of option trading strategies that can be employed by the long term investor. Leveraged Investing is the name I’ve given this approach, and these are the strategies I use myself.
The point of Leveraged Investing is to use options to acquire stock for a discount and then to generate additional returns above and beyond the actual performance of the stock itself. Here are just two examples: [Please note: in the interest of simplicity, commissions have been excluded from all examples. ]
Example #1 – Writing Covered Calls. Writing covered calls is a popular, and generally conservative, income-producing strategy. A call option gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to purchase 100 shares of the underlying stock at a certain price (strike price) by a certain date (expiration date). Conversely, when you write, or sell, a call option on shares that you own, you sell (you receive a premium in the form of cash) someone else the right to purchase your stock at a certain price at or prior to the expiration date. If you own 100 shares of a stock trading at $28/share, you could write a $30 covered call expiring in one month. If the stock closes above $30/share, you’ll be obligated to sell your shares for $30/share. But if the stock closes at or below $30/share, the call option will expire worthless and you’re free to repeat the process. Either way, the premium received is yours to keep.
Writing covered calls is a great way to generate additional income from your investments, but the long term investor must take extra precautions to avoid being called out and forced to sell his or her long term holdings (I call one such precaution, The 1/3 Covered Call Writing Strategy–it basically consists of writing covered calls on only a portion of your portfolio in order to give yourself greater flexibility and protection against sharp moves higher by the stock).
Example #2 – Writing Puts to Acquire Stock at a Discount. A put option, in contrast, gives the holder the right, but not the obligation, to sell 100 shares of the underlying stock at a certain price by a certain date. When you write, or sell, a put, you’re essentially insuring someone else’s shares against a drop below the agreed upon strike price. Like writing covered calls, writing puts can be a great source of income. In fact, the risk-reward profiles for writing puts and writing covered calls are essentially the same. Whereas call writers may write calls out of the money, at the money, or even in the money (the most conservative approach), put writers will typically write out of the money puts (e. g. writing a put with a $30 strike price on a stock currently trading at $32/share).
But for the long term investor, income is of less importance than the opportunity to buy a stock at a lower price that what it’s currently trading at. Writing an at the money put will greatly improve the likelihood of acquiring the stock, and you’ll also receive the most pure premium. Example: Suppose you write an at the money put on a stock that you really like. If the stock is trading at $30/share and you write the put at the $30 strike price for, let’s say, $2. 50 in premium (or $250 in cash since each option contract represents 100 shares of the underlying stock) you’re setting yourself up for a win-win situation.
That’s not to say you can’t lose money on the deal, but look at the two possible scenarios. If the stock closes at $30/share or higher, you keep the original premium you received (which, in our example, represents an approximate 8% return in one month). You’re then free to write another at the money put for additional premium. If the stock closes below $30/share, factoring in the premium you received, you end up purchasing the stock for $27. 50/share. Obviously, if the stock gets cut in half, the premium you received will be small consolation, but what if the stock merely slips down to $29. 50/share? You thought it was a good deal at $30/share and now you’ve acquired it for $2. 50/share less.
As they say, options involve risk and may not be suitable for everyone. But not all option trading strategies have to be high risk propositions. Some approaches, in fact, may offer substantial benefits for the conservative investor. If you are a long term investor, it may be worth your while to conduct additional research to see if there should be a place in your portfolio for options.
The common stock of the C. A. L. L. Corporation has been trading in a narrow range around $50 per share for months, and you believe it is going to stay in that range for the next three months. The price of a three-month put option with an exercise price of $50 is $4, and a call with the same expiration date and exercise price sells for $7.
•a. What would be a simple options strategy using a put and a call to exploit your conviction about the stock price’s future movement
•b. What is the most money you can make on this position? How far can the stock price move in either direction before you lose money?
•c. How can you create a position involving a put, a call, and riskless lending that would have the same payoff structure as the stock at expiration? The stock will pay no dividends in the next three months. What is the net cost of establishing that position now?
Indian Forex Market Ppt
The word forex is a short form of the word Foreign Exchange, which is the basis of the commercial transactions which take place between two countries with their own currencies. The forex market refers to the trading that takes place within this area and is different from the stock market. Established since the ’70s, this market deals not just with one business or investment but the entire gamut of trading and selling of currencies.
While both the forex and the stock markets deal with money, the biggest difference between the two is the sheer volume of money transacted on a daily basis as well the span of operations. The forex market deals with nearly 2 trillions of dollars which in comparison to any stock market is much larger. The players in the forex market are also different, where the money transactions are done between governments, international banks and financial institutions of different countries.
The amount of money which is bought, sold or traded in a forex market can quickly be turned into liquid cash, or better still, it is actually made into hard cash. The speed with which such transactions take place in a forex market can be really fast for any investor, irrespective of the country of his origin.
The other difference between a stock and a forex market is that stock markets operate in shares and businesses which belong to a specific country; forex markets on the other hand operate globally and can include any and every country of the world. Its span of operations is far wider. The market encompasses nearly every country of the world and deal with trading their individual currencies which has nothing to do with any specific business or corporation.
While stock markets operate only on business working days and may remain closed on bank holidays and weekends, the forex market has to consider the several time zones across which it operates. Hence the forex market is open 24 hours 7 days a week to accommodate all the countries. While one market opens another closes. Because of the difference in time zones, one country may close its market but another in another part of the world has opened its own. Thus the trading in a forex market happens on a non-stop basis.
The stock market of any country operates with the prevailing currency of that country. For instance, Japan will work with the yen and the US stock market will work with dollars, Indian stock market with Indian Rupees, etc. The forex market, on the other hand, works with many countries and trades in many currencies. These are the major differences between the stock and the forex markets.
It is important to know the basics of this important financial market called the forex or foreign exchange market, if you also want to participate in it with your investments. Indian Forex Market Ppt